Partie 3 : Sciences et techniques

Chapitre 25 : Care and cures

At the doctor′s and at the hospital, page 56

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a physician
a GP (general practitioner)
the doctor’s surgery, the doctor’s office
to listen to somebody’s chest
to take somebody’s blood pressure
a screening test
a prescription
a cure
an injection
a tablet
to have an X-ray
to undergo surgery
an operating theatre
a nurse
a ward
in intensive care
a graft
a drip
a scar
to heal
to recover
a shrink
a gynaecologist
to give birth to

Christiaan Barnard (1922-2001) performed the world’s first successful human-to-human heart transplant in 1967.

In the 2010s minimally invasive surgery has become the norm for many operations.

Medical research and genetics, page 56

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the gene pool
a stem cell
a clinical trial
animal testing
to ban experiments
selective breeding
to tamper with
a designer baby
to draw the line
long-term effects
a legal limbo

In the United States, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) is a governmental agency that approves or disapproves new drugs and devices.

DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is the molecule that encodes genetic information.

Food for thought, page 57

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Even if you’re not an animal lover, you probably don’t like the idea of animals being used in research, because of the pain inflicted on them. Also, many people say that humans do not react to drugs the way rats or guinea pigs do. The good news is that new computer modelling and bioengineering techniques could make animal testing obsolete.

The idea is to create chips that can simulate how a whole body would react to a new drug. They are like humans on a chip, in which the vital organs are integrated.

Besides, some engineers have developed miniature hearts that can beat 30 times a minute, making it possible to induce diseases in them. These mini hearts are thought to be more efficient to test new drugs, as they are closer to real human hearts than the hearts of animals. Furthermore, they could reduce the time it takes to move towards clinical trials, with human volunteers.

Adapted from The Guardian, August 23, 2014.